Born in 1949, Pierre Dunoyer's creative work was largely influenced by the 1960s. The 1960s were an explosive decade internationally, bearing witness to proliferation of modernist philosophies and trends. It was the era of Kennedy and Kruschev, and the beginning of the Cold War, which would endure for most of the second half of the twentieth century, and was characterised most symbolically by the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The Iron Curtain divided Eastern and Western Europe, both ideologically and literally, and student political uprisings took place globally. Psychedelia, an enormous increase in consumerism, and the associated trends of marketing and advertising further defined the era. Minimalism developed a formal language with no external references, based solely on line, colour and geometric form as key constituents of both painting and sculpture. The main figures of Minimalism included Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Pop Art was a powerful offshoot of minimalism, a discipline made famous by through the work of artists such as Victor Vasarely and Bridget Riley. Around the world many artistic movements echoed the creative concerns of the above mentioned movements, often with regional fortes and nuance. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni established Spatialism, and in Germany the Zero group under the leadership of Gunter Uecker espoused similar ideas. The influential school of Existentialist Philosophy was an important source of creativity for creatives, with artists like Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti becoming known worldwide for their distinguishing approaches to the human form and the anguish related to the human condition.